Water resources are vital to a community's health. ISO works with water companies and municipal water supply agencies nationwide to evaluate the adequacy of water infrastructures for fire suppression and effective firefighting. Water is a major component of a community's Public Protection Classification (PPC) grade. The water supply is also important to insurers, who need an accurate and objective assessment of the fire protection capabilities that serve millions of residential and commercial properties.

ISO's field analysts evaluate the amount of water available compared with the amount needed to suppress fires. They analyze whether the community has sufficient water supply for fire suppression beyond daily maximum consumption. We also survey all components of the water supply system and provide an objective evaluation based on widely accepted national standards and criteria. We survey fire hydrants for distances to properties, types, inspection, size, installation, frequency and completeness of hydrant inspection, and flow-testing programs.

Water Supply Evaluations

ISO bases much of our water supply evaluations on needed fire flow, the amount of water that should be available for providing fire protection at selected locations throughout a community. We have established minimum criteria for our water supply evaluations and recognize the use of alternative water supplies.

To help insurers underwrite properties they may not have previously considered, we recently created a new water classification. Water Class 10W reflects ongoing loss experience analysis. It shows risks located more than 5 but less than 7 road miles from a responding fire station with a creditable water source within 1,000 feet have better loss experience than those farther than 5 road miles from a responding fire station with no creditable water source.

For details on how ISO scores water resources, see items considered in the FSRS.

For details on how we conduct our surveys, see Water Supply Survey.

For more information . . .

. . . on water resources, contact Anthony Zampella at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or 908-821-7689.

. . . on any topic related to the Public Protection Classification (PPC) program or the Fire Suppression Rating Schedule, contact ISO Mitigation, or call the ISO mitigation specialists at 1-800-444-4554.

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Working Together

ISO Community Hazard Mitigation actively works with fire departments, building departments, water suppliers, and municipalities with our Public Protection Classification (PPC™), Building Code Effectiveness Grading Schedule (BCEGS®), water outreach, and emergency communication center review programs. With your participation and cooperation, we will attain our ultimate goal: safer communities.

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Fire Suppression Rating Schedule

ISO’s Fire Suppression Rating Schedule (FSRS), evaluates four primary categories of fire suppression — fire department, emergency communications, water supply, and community risk reduction. The FSRS includes standards set by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Click here to see the standards and registration instructions. Learn more about the FSRS and obtain the latest edition.

Chief Thomas Weber

Fire Service

Chief Thomas Weber

National Director, ISO Community Hazard Mitigation

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Anthony Zampella

Water Resources

Anthony Zampella

National Water Resources manager, ISO Community Hazard Mitigation

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Joseph Fratantaro

Emergency Communications

Joseph Fratantaro

Manager, ISO Community Hazard Mitigation

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Dale Thomure

Building Codes

Dale Thomure

Manager, Community Hazard Mitigation (BCEGS)

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